Sustainable Travel International Logo 

 Students for Sustainable Tourism

SST engages undergraduate and graduate students from multiple disciplines in understanding and promoting sustainable tourism by providing first hand experience in the field through creating service, community outreach, and professional development opportunities.


Learn more!

  NC GreenTravel

If you own or manage a lodging, restaurant, park, entertainment or other travel-oriented business, the NC GreenTravel website will provide you with information to help you become more competitive in the green travel arena.Whether your facility is in the mountains, the piedmont, or the coastal area of North Carolina, we can help you go green and save green!

Click to see all NC GreenTravel recognized businesses

For more information contact Tom Rhodes at the NC Division of Environmental Assistance and Outreach at (919) 707-8140, or Alex Naar the CST's Director of Outreach at (252) 737-1346


Tell a friend about this page.
All fields required.
Can be sent to only one email address at a time.
Share Facebook Icon Twitter Icon

Featuring Our Staff



Carol Kline

Assistant Professor

Center for Sustainable Tourism

RW-203 Rivers Building

East Carolina University

Greenville, North Carolina 27858

Phone: 252.737.4312

Fax: 252.328.4963

Community Outreach Interests

Over the years, I have worked in rural tourism planning, development and marketing in a variety of geographical and cultural settings including New England, Colorado, Germany, the Republik of Moldova, Grenada, and the South Eastern U.S. At NC State University, I taught classes in tourism and provided technical assistance and training to North Carolina communities through the Cooperative Extension Service.  In 2002 and 2003, I served as Director of Tourism at HandMade In America, Inc., a non-profit that promotes and celebrates the artisans of Western North Carolina. I have been fortunate to have worked all over the state and beyond on issues that strengthen local economies and livelihoods, and that contribute to habitat conservation and small town stability.

Research Interests

My general research focus is rural tourism within the U.S. or in economically developing nations. Specific interests within this broad umbrella include:

  • The role of entrepreneurial climate in tourism
  • Entrepreneurs in rural tourism
  • Community factors that lead to successful tourism development
  • The seven 'community capitals' and their application to tourism
  • Resident attitudes towards tourism
  • Sustainable food systems in tourism
  • Exploring niche markets opportunities for rural landowners and communities, such as equestrian tourism, paddling tourism, African-American heritage products, culinary and the scientific, academic, volunteer and educational (SAVE) markets
  • Social equity in tourism
  • Tourism development in Ghana, Cuba, Peru, Chile, Grenada and other international destinations

Notable Publications

Kline, C., Shah, N. & Rubright, H. (accepted). Applying the Positive Theory of Social Entrepreneurship to Understand Food Entrepreneurs and Their Operations. Tourism Planning & Development (special issue).

Kline, C., Hao, H., Alderman, D., Kleckley, J. & Gray, S. (accepted). A Spatial Analysis of Tourism, Entrepreneurship and Entrepreneurial Ecosystems in North Carolina, U.S.A. Tourism Planning & Development (special issue).

Kline, C., Knollenburg, W., & Deale, C. (accepted). Food and Tourism: A research approach to value chain management [book chapter]. Managing Ethical Consumption in Tourism. Taylor & Francis.

Tomas, S. & Kline, C. (2013). Resident perceptions of Tourism in Carriacou [book chapter], Spices and Tourism: Destinations, Attractions and Cuisines.

Ainley, S., & Kline, C. (2012). Moving beyond positivism: Reflexive collaboration in understanding agritourism across North American boundaries. Current Issues in Tourism, (ahead-of-print), 1-10.

Kline, C., McGehee, N., Paterson, S. & Tsao, J. (2012). Using Ecological Systems Theory and Density of Acquaintance to Explore Resident Perception of Entrepreneurial Climate. Journal of Travel Research. 52(3): 294 - 309.

Boone, K., Kline, C., Johnson, L., Milburn, L.A., & Rieder, K. (2012). Development of visitor identity through Study Abroad in Ghana. Tourism Geographies: Tourism Geographies: An International Journal of Tourism Space, Place and Environment. 15(3), 470-493.

Kline, C., Cardenas, D., Duffy, L. & Swanson, J. (2011). Funding sustainable paddle trail development: paddler perspectives, willingness to pay and management implications. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 20(2), 235-256.

Kask, S., Kline, C., & Lamoureux, K. (2011). Modeling tourist and community decision-making: the S.A.V.E. market. Annals of Tourism Research, 38, 1387-1409.

Kline, C. & Milburn, L.A. (2010). Ten Categories of Entrepreneurial Climate to Encourage Rural Tourism Development. Annals of Leisure Research, 13(1/2): 320-348.

Give To East Carolina University