Outcome Three: Demonstrate that they understand writing as a process that can be made more effective through drafting and revision.

Regardless of discipline, students should understand and practice writing as a recursive process that requires ongoing attention to and revision of both "global" elements (such as organization, addressing audience, level of critical thinking, and argument development) and sentence-level elements (such as grammar, mechanics, and format). Writers need feedback from various sources at different points in their writing process to understand what revision looks like and when and how it can be implemented to make writing stronger. Writers benefit from feedback on global issues early in their writing process. Sentence-level feedback and revision can be addressed later in the process. This outcome aims for students to practice and understand how feedback and revision can move writers toward more effective communication. Tools that can be used or adapted to address this outcome are located below.

Questions to consider when thinking through this outcome:

  • Is there any evidence that students will write multiple drafts?
  • From whom will they receive feedback on draft materials?
  • How much revision will be allowed?
  • Are faculty using "writers memos" or "project memos" or some other type of reflective/metacognitive writing to help students analyze their drafting processes?

Featured Resources

Encouraging Productive Revision

This handout offers recommendations for implementing revision approaches, identifies the four types of revision, discusses the importance of modeling revision, provides strategies for focused peer review, and introduces the concept of a writer's memo (PDF).


This handout breaks down the concepts of writing assessment by explaining the difference between assessing writing and responding to writing. It describes formative and summative assessment. As an example of the type of feedback that can be offered to students, the Bless, Address, or Press strategy is explained. Finally, this resources summarizes the three features of effective feedback (PDF).

Writing to Learn

Low-stakes writing, or writing to learn, is explained in this resource by highlighting the benefits for both students and instructors. Furthermore, this handout offers suggestions for writing to learn activities and ways to develop these activities. A genre list of types of writing is included. Lastly, a flow chart is embedded for the instructor to use to help identity what stage of the writing process the student is in at a given point in their writing and to identify the skills that can be addressed at that particular stage (PDF).

Writing to Learn Activities

This comprehensive handout offers a multitude of activities that can be implemented to address low-stakes writing (writing to learn) (PDF).

Additional Resources

Bless, Address, or Press

This resource discusses the type of feedback an instructor can give to a writer at different stages of the writing process (PDF).

Discussing Revision with Students

To best understand revision, this handout introduces the RADaR acronym to explain the four types of revision: replace, add, delete, and reorder (PDF).

Draw Your Writing Process

This handout explains how to draw your writing process, a metacognitive activity that asks students to reflect on how they write so they can better understand which processes work best for them (PDF).

Encouraging Productive Revision

This handout provides recommendations for revision-centered courses that make teachers accountable to be responsible teachers of revision which, in turn, makes students accountable to be responsible students of revision (PDF).

Guidelines for Peer Review

This resource provides additional questions and guidelines for students to follow during peer review (PDF).

Paragraph Sandwich

Use this resource to understand how to construct an effective paragraph using the metaphor of making a sandwich (PPT).

Studying Craft in Digital Texts

Students can use this worksheet to map out their multimodal presentations (PDF).