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Outcome Two: Produce writing that reflects awareness of context, purpose, and audience, particularly within the written genres (including genres that integrate writing with visuals, audio, or other multi-modal components) of their major disciplines and/or career fields.

While types of writing, or genres, vary by discipline, students should be familiar with concepts connected to rhetorical awareness that they can use when confronted with a new writing situation. Considering and exploring key aspects of a writing situation like context (where/when?), purpose (why?), and audience (who?) are integral components for understanding and producing effective texts in various situations. Rhetorical awareness allows students to see writing as context-specific rather than determined by universal rules and enables them to understand what counts as appropriate for different disciplines and audiences. Tools that can be used or adapted to address this outcome are located below.

Questions to consider when thinking through this outcome:

  • Are students writing primarily for the teacher-as-audience, or for more public or semi-public audiences (the discipline, a community organization/nonprofit, funding agency, etc)?
  • Are students writing different texts for different audiences?
  • What methods does the faculty use to help the students understand audience expectations, writing contexts, and appropriate genres (report, grant, letter, analysis, essay, etc) for those audiences and contexts?

Featured Resources

Audience Awareness (PDF)
This handout outlines each of the three stages of a piece of writing's life cycle: the development stage, reading stage, and action stage. Use this resource to consider the evolution of user-centered writing.

CRAFT (PDF)
This resource explains how the CRAFT (Context, Role, Audience, Format, ad Topic) acronym can be applied to create effective contextualized prompts.

Prewriting (PDF)
This handout discusses elements one should consider before writing: the writer's audience, format, voice, purpose, and topic.

Additional Resources

Addressing Higher-Order Concerns (PDF)
This handout details how to address higher-order concerns such as arguments, theses, and levels of critical thinking.

Bless, Address, Press (PDF)
This resources covers the type of feedback that can be given to a writer at different stages of the writing process.

Decoding the Disciplines (Prezi)
Writing in various academic disciplines is different, depending on the specific discipline. This Prezi outlines some of the common strategies that can be used to decoding writing within the disciplines (Prezi).

Ethos, Pathos, Logos (PDF)
This document outlines and provides a brief history of ethos (appeal to credibility), pathos (appeal to emotions), and logos (appeal to logic).

Paragraph Sandwich (PPT)
This presentation provides a metaphorical explanation of how to construct a research paper using the basic components of a sandwich.

Peer Review (PDF)
These handouts provide students with additional questions and guidelines to follow during peer review.