Enrique Reyes

Enrique Reyes

Title: Full Professor
Area of Study: Ecology
Phone: 252-328-5778
Fax: 252-328-4178
Office: Howell S211
Address: Department of Biology
East Carolina University
Greenville, NC 27858

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Research Questions

Broad-scale human adaptation to climate change has become increasingly necessary. It is critical that during this period of historically unprecedented ecological change, meaningful linkages across scientific and decision making arenas are developed to anticipate climate-related ecosystem changes and invest strategically to increase socio-ecological resilience.

I’m interested on marsh/wetland interactions with climate and humans. In essence, 3 questions drive my research. (1) Where’s the challenge on watching plants grow? (2) What’s so special about coastal wetlands? And, (3) how the future of our coasts going to look like and why do we care? Before answering these questions, I’ll add that any of them can be focused using different lenses (where “lens” is scale: temporal, spatial and complexity). So I guess the answer depends on the glasses we look through.

Enrique Reyes1

Research Program

Enrique Reyes

Where’s the challenge on watching grass grow?
The large majority of marshes are monocotyledons and are found in temperate latitudes. For example, for salt marsh the most common genus is Spartina sp. a “true” grass (Family: Poaceae). This also applies to brackish and freshwater marshes, all dominated by communities of grasses. Plant biomass and productivity result from photosynthesis and its interaction of environmental drivers (light, nutrients, water availability). Our world is presenting rapid changes on these and other environmental drivers and we don’t know if and how these plants will cope. The challenge: “to understand and then predict how plants will respond to these changes”. For answers to this question, we use a combination of field experiments using nutrient manipulations, lab work to measure carbon content and computational analyzes to examine grow trends and potential declines.

When working in tropical areas where mangroves dominate, our systems approach remains the same, but here we have to see the trees among the forest.

What’s so special about coastal wetlands?
Two things make these communities/habitats special: a) they are very productive and support lots of species that we like to eat; b) We like to use this areas for agriculture, landfills and places to put “marinas”. This conflict between wetlands doing good things for us versus doing things to wetlands that are good for us makes it evident on how special these areas are. Research questions on how coastal areas respond to diverse impacts, natural and man-made are addressed using simulation modeling. Our research of integrating landscape ecology to assess different approaches to coastal resource management has been based on leading and participating with several multidisciplinary teams for the development of these ecosystem models. Previous modeling efforts span from plant productivity, fish migration, medium-sized experiments, to landscape simulation focused on understanding processes in wetlands and tropical watersheds.

Enrique Reyes

What’s the future of coastal wetlands is going to look like and why do we care? Changing climate is affecting all coastal communities in their growth, resislience and potential survival. These highly regarded natural areas are also at risk due to human population growth. We have several research projects to understand and predict how coastal wetlands will look like on time spans of 50 to 100 years into the future. We use regional landscape models to predict the distribution and adaptation of coastal habitats on different watersheds. Our results have the potential to be used for policy and planning development. I’m very interested on building groundwork for the development of integrated socio-ecological models focused on opportunities that meet coastal needs for climate-related decision, and support communication with coastal managers and policy makers for more extensive incorporation of human dimensions.

Where are our projects? Research projects have included coastal North Carolina, estuaries and bays of Louisiana, models for the Virginia Coastal Reserve estuarine complex (an LTER site), the Everglades in Florida, Padilla Bay in Washington, Liberty Island on the San Jacinto Delta, California, and several coastal lagoons in the Mexican Caribbean.

Courses Taught

BIOL4300 Ecosystems EcologyEnrique Reyes

BIOL4320 Ecological Responses to Global Climate Change

BIOL 6128 Systems Ecology

BIOL 7005 Biological and Chemical Principles of Coastal Science

BIOL7300 Landscape Ecology

BIOL7310 Ecological Simulation and Modeling

BIOL7320 Ecosystems of Coastal Cities

BIOL7330 Ecological Dimensions of Coastal Zone Management

Recent Publications

Ibanez, C., J.W. Day, E. Reyes. 2014. The response of deltas to sea-level rise: Natural mechanisms and management options to adapt to high-end scenarios. Ecological Engineering. 65: 122-130.

Alcaraz C., Caiola N., Ibáñez C., Reyes E. 2014. Modelling management options for controlling the invasive zebra mussel in a Mediterranean reservoir. Chap 18. Jorgensen, S.E., Chang, N.B., Xu, F.L. (eds.) “Progress in Ecological Modelling and Engineering of Lakes and Wetlands”. Elsevier. ISBN: 9780444632494. pg. 720.

Reyes E. 2013. Use of wetlands spatial models for sustainable development. Chap. 17. In: Yanez-Arancibia A., R. Davalos-Sotelo, J.W. Day and E. Reyes (eds.) “Ecological Dimensions for Sustainable Socio Economic Development”. WIT Press, Southampton UK. ISBN: 978-1-84564-756-8.

Yanez-Arancibia, A., J.W. Day, E. Reyes. 2013. Understanding the coastal ecosystem-based management approach in the Gulf of Mexico. Journal of Coastal Research. SI:63, 243-262

Reyes, E., K.A. Rose, D. Justic. 2012. Estuarine Ecological Modeling. In: Estuarine Ecology (2nd Edition). Day, J.W., W.M. Kemp, A. Yanez-Arancibia, B.C. Crump. (eds). John Willey, New York. 723 pages. ISBN: 978-0-471-75567-8.

Fagherazzi, S., S. Temmerman, J. van de Koppel, A. D’Alpaos, E. Reyes, C. Craft, J. Cluogh, J. Rybczyk, S. Mudd. 2012. Numerical models of salt marsh evolution: ecological and climatic factors. Submitted to: Reviews of Geophysics. 50, RG10002, doi:10.1029/2011RG000359.

Mcleod, E., B. Poulter, J. Hinkel, E. Reyes, R. Salm. 2010. Sea level rise impact models and environmental conservation: A review of models and their applications. Ocean and Coastal Management. 53: 507-517.

Reyes E., 2009. Wetland Landscape Spatial Models. In: G.M.E. Perillo, E. Wolanski, D.R. Cahoon, M.M. Brinson, (eds.), Coastal Wetlands: An Integrated Ecosystem Approach. Elsevier, p. 885. ISBN: 978-0-444-53103-2.

Laboratory Personnel

Graduate Students

Juan Calvo

Juan Calvo – Ph D. Student

Factors controlling water quality and vertical accretion on experimental constructed wetlands (Ebro Delta, Spain).

Calvo-Cubero, J., C. Ibanez, A. Rovira, P.J. Sharpe, E. Reyes. IN PRESS. Mineral versus organic contribution to vertical accretion and elevation change in restored marshes (ebro delta, Spain).Ecological Engineering.

Undergraduate Students

Mark Wejrowski

Mark Wejrowski - MSc. Student

Response of a Spartina patens-dominated Oligohaline Marsh to Nitrogen Enrichment in Coastal North Carolina, USA. M.S. Biology. ECU.

Thesis defense: September 6th, 2013.

Ashlee Perkinson

Ashlee Perkinson

Implications of climate change on vector-borne diseases for coastal North Carolina

Perkinson, A., E. Reyes. 2013. Use of ecological modeling for coastal management: potential of tropical disease migration as a consequence of climate change – The Dengue Case.Chap 11. Yanez-Arancibia, A., J.W. Day (Eds.) "Cambio Climatico: Dimension Ecologica y Socio Economica". Editorial AGT Editorial, SA. Mexico DF. 229-243.

Visiting Scholars

Janet Teran

Janet Teran – MSc. Student

Terán González, G.J., L.A. Ayala-Pérez, E. Reyes, M. Zetina. In Press. Modelo de simulación del aprovechamiento de los principales recursos pesqueros de la Reserva de la Biosfera Los Petenes, Campeche. Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research.

Brenda Vega

Brenda Vega – Ph D. Student

Modelo de simulación del aprovechamiento del sábalo (Megalops atlanticus Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1847) en la pesca deportiva de Campeche, México.

Patricia Prado

Dr. Patricia Prado – Fulbright Visiting Scholar.

 IRTA – Aquatic Ecosystems Division, Catalunia Spain.

Modeling trophic networks in coastal lagoons and rice fields subjected to contrasting levels of disturbance.

Prado, P., C. Ibanez, N. Caiola, E. Reyes. 2013. Evaluation of seasonal variability in the food-web properties of coastal lagoons subjected to contrasting salinity gradients using network analyses. Ecological Modelling. 265:180-193