East Carolina University
 
Classical Studies: Herodotus and the Persian Wars


Bust of Herodotus

 
 


Fall Semester 2004
Instructor: Dr. Peter Green
Time: TTh 11.00-12.15
Place B B204
Office: TBA
Office hours: TTh 2-3 and by arrangement

 
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Required texts. The following will be needed by all students throughout the course:

  • Herodotus: The Histories. Trs. Aubrey de Selincourt. Ed. John Marincola. 4th ed., Penguin 2003 [Hdt.]. N.B. No earlier edition will meet the needs of this course.
  • Plutarch: The Rise and Fall of Athens. Nine Greek Lives. Trs. Ian Scott-Kilvert. Penguin 1960 [Plut.].
  • Diodorus of Sicily: Vol. IV [Books IX-XII 40]. Trs. C.H. Oldfather. Heinemann/Harvard UP 1946 [DS].
  • The Greco-Persian Wars. Peter Green. University of California Press 1996 [G-PW]. N.B. I don't normally use my own texts (why have a dog and then bark yourself?), but the two I would have preferred, either A.R. Burn's Persia and the Greeks (2nd ed. 1984) or John Lazenby's The Defence of Greece 490-479 B.C. (1993)-the second of which disagrees with me throughout, which is wonderfully stimulating-are out of print and unavailable (except Burn in hardback, which costs a small fortune), so I have to fall back on the pis aller. Sorry about that.

Optional reading:

Designed for those who are interested in exploring the subject in greater depth. Items so listed will normally be found in the Bibliography at the end of this Syllabus (call-numbers are those of the Joyner Library). Those on reserve are marked with a star(*). Those marked with a dagger (†) are to be found in the Bibliography or Supplementary Bibliography of G-PW. Those marked with a plus sign (+) are my personal copies or xeroxes, that will be loaned out on the same terms as the texts on reserve. Marincola, in his section on 'Further Reading' (xxxix-xlv) lists other recent titles worth pursuing. For all aspects of the course, the Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. 4, Persia, Greece and the Western Mediterranean c. 525-479 B.C., 2nd ed. 1988 [CAH IV2], is an invaluable resource. So is the Oxford Classical Dictionary, 3rd ed., 1996 (ed. S. Hornblower, A. Spawforth). There is a useful detailed chronology in Lazenby 272-3 (which will be made available as a hand-out).

 


 

Assignments:

 

1. Thurs. 26 Aug. General Introduction: handouts, orientation &c. Reading for 2: Hdt. ix-xiii, xxix-xxxiii; Optional: Burn* 1-6, Gould* 1-18, Myres* 1-16; Hart†+ ch.6, 158-180; Brown ch. 2, 25-46; and for those who can read French, the wonderful investigation by Legrand, Introduction, 5-37 (what follows, on H.'s personality, is equally valuable).
2. Tues. 31 Aug. Herodotus: Life, Background, Historical Context. Reading for 3: Hdt. xviii-xxii, Plut. 7-12; DS X.12 (pp.73-75). Optional: Lazenby+ ch. 1 ('The Evidence'), 1-16; Burn* 6-16; Gould* 19-41.
3. Thurs. 2 Sept. Survey of Available Sources. Reading for 4: Hdt. xiii-xviii; Burn* 6-9 [handout]; Optional: Gould* 42-62, 110-134, CAH IV2* 5-6, 466-473; Waters+ chs. 4-6; Hart+ chs.3-4; Lateiner passim; Hignett* 3-55; and for those with Greek, R.L. Fowler, 'H. and his Contemporaries', Journ. Hell. Stud. [JHS] 116 (1996)+ 62-87, a brilliant and shrewd evaluation.
Mon. 6 Sept. Labor Day: No Classes.
4. Tues. 7 Sept. Historiography and Scholarship. Reading for 5: Arist. Ath. Pol. 5-17 [hand-out]; Hdt., index reff. to 'Solon', 'Pisistratus'; Plut. 43-76; DS IX.1-8 (pp. 3-11), 20.1-4 (pp. 27-29), 37 (p.51), X.17 (p.79). Optional: CAH IV2* 287-302; Ehrenberg 50-90; Forrest 1966 chs. 6-7; French ch. iii, 30-58; Arnush†.
5. Thurs. 9 Sept. Practice Test I (11.00-11.30). Earlier Greek History: Solon to the Peisistratids. Reading for 6: Hdt. 45-78; G-PW 3-15; DS IX.21-27 (pp. 31-39), 31-35 (pp. 41-47), X.13-15 (pp.75-77). Optional: Burn* 36-62; Lazenby+ ch. 2; CAH IV2* 1-52; Kuhrt+ 647-667, 676-700; Cook 1983†.
6. Tues. 14 Sept. Persian Background (Political, Social, Economic). Reading for 7: General Review for Pre-Midterm Exam.
7. Thurs. 16 Sept. Pre-Midterm Examination. Reading for 8: Arist. Ath. Pol. 18-21 [hand-out]; Hdt., index s.v. 'Cleisthenes (2)', 'Pisistratidae', esp. 333-340; G-PW 15-20. Optional: Burn* ch. vi, 96 ff.; CAH IV2* 303-346; Forrest 1966 ch. 8; French ch.iv, 59-70.
8. Tues. 21 Sept. The Cleisthenic Revolution in Athens. Reading for 9: Hdt. 228-235, 268-273, 280-288; DS X.19.2-5 (pp.83-85). Optional: Burn* ch. vii.127-142; CAH IV2* 234-253, 347-367; Lazenby+ ch. ii, 17-44; Murray ch. xiv, 246-261.
9. Thurs. 23 Sept. Darius and the West. Reading for 10 and 11: G-PW 20-22; Hdt. 328-331, 350-370. Optional: Burn* ch. x, 193-220; CAH IV2* 461-490; OCD3 s.v. 'Ionian Revolt' (764); Evans 1976†; Manville†.
10. Tues. 28 Sept. The Ionian Revolt (I). Reading for 11: As above.
11. Thurs. 30 Sept. Practice Test II, 11.00-11.30. The Ionian Revolt (II). Reading for 12 and 13: Hdt. 394-404; G-PW 22-40; Plut. 114-115; DS X.27 (p. 97). Optional: Burn* chs. xi-xii (221-256); Lazenby+ ch.3, 45-80; CAH IV2* 491-517; Hignett* 55-74; Ehrenberg 134-142; Evans 1984†; Van der Veer †.
12. Tues. 5 Oct. Marathon (I). Reading for 13: As above.
13. Thurs. 7 Oct. Marathon (II). Reading for 14: G-PW 43-58; Hdt. 408-412; Plut. 77-82. Optional: Burn* ch. xiii (258-278); CAH IV2* 518-526; Lazenby+ 81-86; French ch. v, 71-81; McCulloch†.
14. Tues. 12 Oct. Greek Politics After Marathon. Reading for 15: General Review for Midterm Exam.
15. Thurs. 14 Oct. Midterm Examination. Reading for 16: G-PW 66-72; Hdt. 413-425; Plut. 109-114, 144-5; DS xi.1-2 (pp. 121-5). Optional: Burn* ch. xiv, 279-296; Lazenby+ 87-97.
Fall Break, Sat. 16 Oct.-Tues. 19 Oct.
16. Thurs. 21 Oct. Preparations for Defense. Reading for 17: G-PW 75-93; Hdt. 7.20-130 (pp. 425-458); DS xi.1-3 (pp.121-131). Optional: Burn* ch. xvi, 313-336, ch.xvii, 337-350; Lazenby+ 98-106 (controversial and muddled, but starts all the hares); CAH IV2* 526-540; Hammond & Roseman, 'The construction of Xerxes' bridge over the Hellespont'+.
17. Tues. 26 Oct. The Persian Invasion: Bridging the Hellespont. Reading for 18: G-PW 93-105; Hdt. 7.131-197 (pp. 458-485); Plut. 82-85; DS xi.4-5.3 (pp.131-137). Optional: Burn* ch. xvii, 337-377, xviii, 378-391; CAH IV2* 540-545; Lazenby + 106-116; Jameson 1960†; Lewis 1961†; Fornara 1967†; Chambers 1961/2, 1967†; Burstein†; Gillis†.
18. Thurs. 28 Oct. Oracles, Quislings, and the Troizen Decree. Reading for 19: G-PW 109-148; Hdt. 7.198-8.39 (pp. 485-513); DS xi.5.4-11.6 (pp. 137-153). Optional: Burn* ch. xviii, 392-405, xix (all); Lazenby+ ch. 6, 117-160; CAH IV2* 546-563; Hignett* chs. ii-iii (105-192); Pritchett † 1969 (ii), 1982 (ix); Sidebotham†; Wallace P.W.† 1984.
19. Tues. 2 Nov. Salamis (I): Thermopylai and Artemision. Reading for 20: G-PW 153-167; Hdt. 8.40-69 (pp. 513-523); DS xi.12-16 (pp. 153-167); Plut. Them. 9-10 (pp. 85-88), Arist. 7-8 (pp. 116-9).; Optional: Burn* ch. xx, 434-449; Lazenby + 151-174; CAH IV2* 563-573; Hignett* 193-215; Shear†.
20. Thurs. 4 Nov. Practice test III: 11.00-11.30. Salamis (II): Themistocles and Naval Strategy. Reading for 21: Hdt. 8.70-97 (pp. 523-533); Aesch. Pers. 353-432, 441-471, 478-512 (handout); DS xi.17-19 (pp. 167-175); Plut. Them. 11-15 (pp. 88-92), Arist. 9 (p. 119). Optional: Burn* ch. xxi, 450-475; CAH IV2* 573-590; Lazenby+174-197; Hignett* 215-239; and for those with French, the excellent source-analysis by Roux†.
21. Tues. 9 Nov. Salamis (III): The Battle and its Aftermath. Reading for 22: General Review of post-Midterm material.
22. Thurs. 11 Nov. Pre-Final Examination. Reading for 23: G-PW 201-216; Hdt. 8.98-144 (pp. 533-553); Plut. Them. 16-18 (pp. 92-95), Arist. 10 (pp. 119-121); DS xi. 27-28 (pp. 197-201). Optional: Burn* ch. xxiii, 488-500; Lazenby +198-206; CAH IV2* 592-6; Hignett* 264-273.
23. Tues. 16 Nov. Between Salamis and Plataia (I): Dealing with Mardonius. Reading for 24: G-PW 216-236; Hdt. 9.1-18 (pp. 554-561). Optional: Burn* ch. xxiii, 500-507; CAH IV2* 596-9; Lazenby+ 206-216; Hignett* 273-288; Williams 1980†.
24. Thurs. 18 Nov. Between Salamis and Plataia (II): The problem of Sparta. Reading for 25: G-PW 239-254; Hdt. 9.19-43 (pp. 561-573); Plut. Arist. 11-14 (pp. 121-125); DS xi.29-30.4 (pp. 201-205). Optional: Burn* ch. xxiv, 507-528; Hignett* 289-301; Lazenby + 217-223; CAH IV2* 599-605; Nyland†; Pritchett †1979.
25. Tues. 23 Nov. Plataia (I): The Oath, and the Waiting Game. Reading for 26: G-PW 254-271, 277-282; Hdt. 9.44-70 (pp. 573-583), 90-106 (pp. 590-597); Plut. Arist. 15-19 (pp.125-131); DS xi. 30.4-32 (pp. 205-211), 34-36 (pp. 215-221). Optional: Burn* ch. xxiv 529-546, Epilogue 547-551; CAH IV2* 599-616; Lazenby + 223-247; Hignett* 301-344 (Plataia), 240-261 (Mykale); Pritchett† 1985 (v); Wallace P.W† 1982.
Thanksgiving Holiday: Wed. 24 Nov.-Sun. 28 Nov.
26. Tues. 30 Nov. Plataia (II): The Battle, and Victory at Mykale. Reading for 27: G-PW 272-277, 283-7; Hdt. 9.107-122 (pp. 597-603); Plut. Arist. 20-27 (pp.131-139), Cimon 4-9 (pp. 114-151); DS xi.37, 39-47 (pp. 221-5, 227-249). Optional: Burn*, Epilogue 551-567; CAH IV2* 616-622; Lazenby+ 248-261.
27. Thurs. 2 Dec Aftermath: Political, Strategical, Economic Consequences. Reading for 28: Begin General Review for Final Examination.
28. Tues. 7 Dec. Review and Discussion Day.
Sat. 11 Dec. Commencement.
Tues. 14 Dec. Final Examination: 11.00 a.m.-1.30 p.m.

 

 

Grading Policy:

Practice Tests (5% each) 15%
Pre-Midterm, Midterm and Pre-Final (15% each) 45%
Class Discussion 15%
Final Exam 25%

Any graduate student who takes the course will be further required to write a term paper, topic to be determined by the date of the Midterm Exam, and paper to be submitted by the first day of Final Exams (Thurs. 9 Dec.). This paper will get a letter grade, and its numerical percentage value will be combined with the student's other grades in the course to determine his or her final grade.

 

Bibliography:

N.B. This is simply a minimal list of books useful for the course, almost all in English. The overall bibliography on the subject (as a glance at the titles, themselves highly selective, listed in G-PW will make very clear) is enormous, and still increasing, particularly as regards various aspects of Herodotos. The Persian Wars themselves, for some reason, have had less attention (G-PW and Lazenby are the only two books on the subject since Burn's in 1963).

* = on reserve
† = in G-PW's bibliographies
+ = a book or xeroxed text available from the instructor.
Call-numbers are those of the Joyner Library.

  • *Bakker, E. J. et al. (ed.) Brill's Companion to Herodotos. Leiden 2002. PA 4004. B75.
  • +Briant, P. From Cyrus to Alexander: A History of the Persian Empire. Trs. P.T Daniels. Winona Lake 2002.
  • Brown, T.S. The Greek Historians. Lexington 1973. DF 211. B7.
  • *Burn, A.R. Persia and the Greeks: The Defence of the West, c. 546-478 B.C. London 1962/1984. DF 225. B8.
  • *Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. IV, 2nd ed. Persia, Greece and the Western Mediterranean, c. 525-479 B.C. Cambridge 1988. Ref. D 57. C252 1982 [1988].
  • Ehrenburg, V. From Solon to Socrates. 2nd ed. London 1972/3. DF 77. E35.
  • +Forrest, G. The Emergence of Greek Democracy. London 1966.
  • French, A. The Growth of the Athenian Economy. London 1964. HC 37. F7 1964a.
  • *Frye, R. N. The Heritage of Persia. Cleveland 1963, repr. NY 1966. DS 275. F7.
  • Flower, M.A., Marincola, J. (ed.) Herodotus: Book IX. Cambridge 2002.
  • *Gould, J. Herodotus. London 1989. D 56.52. H 45. G 68.
  • Hammond, N.G.L., Rosman, L. J. 'The construction of Xerxes' bridge over the Hellespont', Journ. Hellenic Stud. [JHS] 116 (1996) 88-107. DF 10. J8.
  • + Hart, J. Herodotus and Greek History. London 1982.
  • Hartog, F. The Mirror of Herodotus. Berkeley 1988. D 58. H 473. H 4713.
  • *Hignett, C. Xerxes' Invasion of Greece. Oxford 1963. DF 225. H5.
  • Hornblower, S., Spawforth, A. (ed.) The Oxford Classical Dictionary. 3rd ed. Oxford 1996. DE 5. O 9.
  • *How, W.W., Wells, J. A Commentary on Herodotus. 2nd ed. Vol. II. Oxford 1928. PA 4004. H6.
  • Holt, P. 'Sex, tyranny, and Hippias' Incest Dream', Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies [GRBS] 39 (1998) 221-241. DE 1. G73.
  • Immerwahr, H. Form and Thought in Herodotus. Chapel Hill 1966. PA 4004. I45.
  • +Kuhrt, A. The Ancient Near East, c. 3000-330 B.C. Vol. II (NY 1995) pt. 13, 'The Achaemenid Empire (c. 550-330)', 647-702.
  • Lateiner, D. The Historical Method of Herodotus. Toronto 1989. D 56.52. H45.L38X.
  • +Lazenby, J. The Defence of Greece, 490-479 B.C. Warminster 1993.
  • +Legrand, P.-E. Hérodote: Introduction. Paris 1966.
  • Lenardon, R.J. The Saga of Themistocles. London 1978. DF 228. T4. L56X.
  • Macan, R.W. Herodotus: The Seventh Eighth and Ninth Books. 3 in 2 vols. London 1908, repr. NY 1973.
  • *Mikalson, J. Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars. Chapel Hill 2003. BL 795. W28. M55.
  • Miller, M. C. Athens and Persia in the Fifth Century B.C. Cambridge 1997. DF 227.5 M56.
  • Murray, O. Early Greece. 2nd ed. Cambridge Mass. 1993. DF 77. M82.
  • +Myres, J.L. Herodotus Father of History. Oxford 1953. Computer File.
  • *Olmstead, A.T. History of the Persian Empire. Chicago 1948. DS 281. O4.
  • Podlecki, A.J. The Life of Themistocles. Montreal 1975. DF 228. T4 P6.
  • Romm, J. Herodotus. New Haven 1998. Electronic Resource.
  • Thomas, R. Herodotus in Context. Cambridge 2000. D58. T46.
  • Waters, K.H. Herodotus the Historian. London 1985.
  • Yiannakis, A. The Leonidas III Expedition [Kallidromos and the Anopaia Path at Thermopylai]