Heart and vascular conditions may include the following. There are others not listed here and you should always speak with a physician about any symptoms you are experiencing.
Blockage occurs when deposits form on vessels leading to and from the heart. Surgical remedies may include open-heart surgery to attach new vessels (bypass). Other procedures include angioplasty which uses an expandable instrument to enlarge a vessel as well as placing stents to open vessels.
Heart attack (myocardial infarction) occurs when a blocked vessel has shut off circulation to an area of the heart. This serious event can cause heart tissue damage, but many of those effects can often heal with appropriate and rapid intervention.
Vascular blockage occurs when vessels that nourish organs, such as the kidneys, become blocked. Surgically placed stents can often halt the damage to organ systems by restoring blood flow.
Thrombosis is a condition caused by the appearance of blood clots. When they form in the brain, they may lead to stroke. Clots in other parts of the body may be called Deep Vein Thrombosis, or DVT, which may cause pain or swelling.
Aneurysm describes a weak or bulging artery wall usually caused by cholesterol-containing fatty deposits.
Cholesterol management, through diet, exercise and medications, can help reduce complications to the heart and blood vessels caused by fatty deposits.
Stroke causes a disruption in the brain that results from a circulatory problem, such as a clot a clot forms in the brain (ischemic stroke) or when there is bleeding (hemorrhagic stroke). Rapid response is critical to reduce the harmful effects of these disturbances and may include medication to dissolve the clot.
Carotid (neck) artery blockage can threaten the blood supply to the brain. Procedures may improve circulation and may include minimally invasive surgery.
Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) occurs when circulation to the arms, legs or other areas is reduced because of narrowed blood vessels. It can cause symptoms such as leg pain when walking. Quitting smoking may lead to improvement. Other treatments may include cholesterol-lowering medications and blood-pressure lowering medications.
High blood pressure (hypertension) occurs when the pressure inside the blood vessels is too high. This condition places enormous stress on the heart and other organs and may cause the heart to become enlarged and lead to congestive heart failure. It can lead to kidney failure and dialysis if not treated.
Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) occurs when the heart is unable to work properly, leading to extreme fatigue and shortness of breath.
Mitral valve conditions may result from disease, degeneration or a congenital defect and can lead to fatigue and shortness of breath. Treatment includes surgical repair or replacement of the mitral valve, often through robotically-assisted minimally invasive procedures.