• Community Sense of Place Community Sense of Place Tourism Impacts and Second Home Development: A Sustainable Approach
  • Climate, Weather, and Tourism Climate, Weather, and Tourism Tourism destinations and their individual tourism businesses are all vying for tourists at their respective locations.
  • Engagement and Community Engagement and Community In partnership with the Office of Engagement, Innovation, and Economic Development.
  • Rural Tourism Rural Tourism Sustaining rural America is one of today's pressing issues.
  • RESET RESET Race, Ethnicity, and Social Equity in Tourism
  • US Travel Care Code US Travel Care Code The United States Travel Care Code has been developed and is managed by the Center for Sustainable Tourism.
  • RETI RETI The Renewable Energy in Tourism Initiative
  • Tourism and Entrepreneurship Tourism and Entrepreneurship Developing the local tourism industry as part of an economic development strategy.

Featuring Our Staff


Sustainability Content


Carol Kline

Assistant Professor
Center for Sustainable Tourism
RW-203 Rivers Building
East Carolina University
Greenville, North Carolina 27858
Phone: 252.737.4312
Fax: 252.328.4963

Community Outreach Interests

Over the years, I have worked in rural tourism planning, development and marketing in a variety of geographical and cultural settings including New England, Colorado, Germany, the Republik of Moldova, Grenada, and the South Eastern U.S. At NC State University, I taught classes in tourism and provided technical assistance and training to North Carolina communities through the Cooperative Extension Service.  In 2002 and 2003, I served as Director of Tourism at HandMade In America, Inc., a non-profit that promotes and celebrates the artisans of Western North Carolina. I have been fortunate to have worked all over the state and beyond on issues that strengthen local economies and livelihoods, and that contribute to habitat conservation and small town stability.

Research Interests

My general research focus is rural tourism within the U.S. or in economically developing nations. Specific interests within this broad umbrella include:

  • The role of entrepreneurial climate in tourism
  • Entrepreneurs in rural tourism
  • Community factors that lead to successful tourism development
  • The seven 'community capitals' and their application to tourism
  • Resident attitudes towards tourism
  • Sustainable food systems in tourism
  • Exploring niche markets opportunities for rural landowners and communities, such as equestrian tourism, paddling tourism, African-American heritage products, culinary and the scientific, academic, volunteer and educational (SAVE) markets
  • Social equity in tourism
  • Tourism development in Ghana, Cuba, Peru, Chile, Grenada and other international destinations

Notable Publications

Kline, C., Shah, N. & Rubright, H. (accepted). Applying the Positive Theory of Social Entrepreneurship to Understand Food Entrepreneurs and Their Operations. Tourism Planning & Development (special issue).

Kline, C., Hao, H., Alderman, D., Kleckley, J. & Gray, S. (accepted). A Spatial Analysis of Tourism, Entrepreneurship and Entrepreneurial Ecosystems in North Carolina, U.S.A. Tourism Planning & Development (special issue).

Kline, C., Knollenburg, W., & Deale, C. (accepted). Food and Tourism: A research approach to value chain management [book chapter]. Managing Ethical Consumption in Tourism. Taylor & Francis.

Tomas, S. & Kline, C. (2013). Resident perceptions of Tourism in Carriacou [book chapter], Spices and Tourism: Destinations, Attractions and Cuisines.

Ainley, S., & Kline, C. (2012). Moving beyond positivism: Reflexive collaboration in understanding agritourism across North American boundaries. Current Issues in Tourism, (ahead-of-print), 1-10.

Kline, C., McGehee, N., Paterson, S. & Tsao, J. (2012). Using Ecological Systems Theory and Density of Acquaintance to Explore Resident Perception of Entrepreneurial Climate. Journal of Travel Research. 52(3): 294 - 309.

Boone, K., Kline, C., Johnson, L., Milburn, L.A., & Rieder, K. (2012). Development of visitor identity through Study Abroad in Ghana. Tourism Geographies: Tourism Geographies: An International Journal of Tourism Space, Place and Environment. 15(3), 470-493.

Kline, C., Cardenas, D., Duffy, L. & Swanson, J. (2011). Funding sustainable paddle trail development: paddler perspectives, willingness to pay and management implications. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 20(2), 235-256.

Kask, S., Kline, C., & Lamoureux, K. (2011). Modeling tourist and community decision-making: the S.A.V.E. market. Annals of Tourism Research, 38, 1387-1409.

Kline, C. & Milburn, L.A. (2010). Ten Categories of Entrepreneurial Climate to Encourage Rural Tourism Development. Annals of Leisure Research, 13(1/2): 320-348.

Sustainable Tourism | Carol Kline

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